# hub.darcs.net :: simon -> pandoc-otl -> files

text markup conversion tool, my vim outline reader branch

## root

% Pandoc User's Guide
% John MacFarlane
% March 20, 2010

Pandoc is a [Haskell] library for converting from one markup format to
another, and a command-line tool that uses this library. It can read
[markdown] and (subsets of) [reStructuredText], [HTML], and [LaTeX]; and
it can write plain text, [markdown], [reStructuredText], [HTML], [LaTeX],
[ConTeXt], [RTF], [DocBook XML], [OpenDocument XML], [ODT], [GNU Texinfo],
[MediaWiki markup], [EPUB], [groff man] pages, and [Slidy] or [S5]
HTML slide shows.

Pandoc's enhanced version of markdown includes syntax for footnotes,
tables, flexible ordered lists, definition lists, delimited code blocks,
superscript, subscript, strikeout, title blocks, automatic tables of
contents, embedded LaTeX math, and markdown inside HTML block elements.
(These enhancements can be disabled if a drop-in replacement for
Markdown.pl is desired.)

In contrast to most existing tools for converting markdown to HTML, which
use regex substitutions, Pandoc has a modular design: it consists of a
set of readers, which parse text in a given format and produce a native
representation of the document, and a set of writers, which convert
this native representation into a target format. Thus, adding an input

[markdown]: http://daringfireball.net/projects/markdown/
[reStructuredText]: http://docutils.sourceforge.net/docs/ref/rst/introduction.html
[S5]: http://meyerweb.com/eric/tools/s5/
[Slidy]: http://www.w3.org/Talks/Tools/Slidy/
[HTML]:  http://www.w3.org/TR/html40/
[LaTeX]: http://www.latex-project.org/
[RTF]:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rich_Text_Format
[DocBook XML]:  http://www.docbook.org/
[OpenDocument XML]: http://opendocument.xml.org/
[ODT]: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OpenDocument
[MediaWiki markup]: http://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/Help:Formatting
[groff man]: http://developer.apple.com/DOCUMENTATION/Darwin/Reference/ManPages/man7/groff_man.7.html
[GNU Texinfo]: http://www.gnu.org/software/texinfo/
[EPUB]: http://www.idpf.org/

© 2006-2010 John MacFarlane (jgm at berkeley dot edu). Released under the
[GPL], version 2 or greater.  This software carries no warranty of
Other contributors include Recai Oktaş, Paulo Tanimoto, Peter Wang,
Andrea Rossato, Eric Kow, infinity0x, Luke Plant, shreevatsa.public,
rodja.trappe, Bradley Kuhn, thsutton, Justin Bogner.

[GPL]: http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/gpl.html "GNU General Public License"

Using Pandoc
============

If you run pandoc without arguments, it will accept input from
stdin.  If you run it with file names as arguments, it will take input
from those files.  By default, pandoc writes its output to stdout.[^1]
If you want to write to a file, use the -o option:

pandoc -o hello.html hello.txt

[^1]:  The exceptions are for odt and epub.  Since these are
a binary output formats, an output file must be specified explicitly.

Note that you can specify multiple input files on the command line.
pandoc will concatenate them all (with blank lines between them)
before parsing:

pandoc -s ch1.txt ch2.txt refs.txt > book.html

(The -s option here tells pandoc to produce a standalone HTML file,
with a proper header, rather than a fragment.  For more details on this
and many other command-line options, see below.)

Instead of a filename, you can specify an absolute URI. In this

pandoc -f html -t markdown http://www.fsf.org

The format of the input and output can be specified explicitly using
command-line options.  The input format can be specified using the
-r/--read or -f/--from options, the output format using the
-w/--write or -t/--to options.  Thus, to convert hello.txt from
markdown to LaTeX, you could type:

pandoc -f markdown -t latex hello.txt

To convert hello.html from html to markdown:

pandoc -f html -t markdown hello.html

Supported output formats include markdown, latex, context
(ConTeXt), html, rtf (rich text format), rst
(reStructuredText), docbook (DocBook XML), opendocument
(OpenDocument XML), odt (OpenOffice text document), texinfo, (GNU
Texinfo), mediawiki (MediaWiki markup), epub (EPUB ebook),
man (groff man), slidy (slidy HTML and javascript slide show), or
s5 (S5 HTML and javascript slide show).

Supported input formats include markdown, html, latex, and rst.
Note that the rst reader only parses a subset of reStructuredText
syntax. For example, it doesn't handle tables, option lists, or
footnotes. But for simple documents it should be adequate. The latex
and html readers are also limited in what they can do.

If you don't specify a reader or writer explicitly, pandoc will
try to determine the input and output format from the extensions of
the input and output filenames.  Thus, for example,

pandoc -o hello.tex hello.txt

will convert hello.txt from markdown to LaTeX.  If no output file
is specified (so that output goes to stdout), or if the output file's
extension is unknown, the output format will default to HTML.
If no input file is specified (so that input comes from stdin), or
if the input files' extensions are unknown, the input format will
be assumed to be markdown unless explicitly specified.

Character encodings
-------------------

All input is assumed to be in the UTF-8 encoding, and all output
is in UTF-8. If your local character encoding is not UTF-8 and you use
accented or foreign characters, you should pipe the input and output
through [iconv]. For example,

iconv -t utf-8 source.txt | pandoc | iconv -f utf-8 > output.html

will convert source.txt from the local encoding to UTF-8, then
convert it to HTML, then convert back to the local encoding,
putting the output in output.html.

Wrappers
========

markdown2pdf
--------------

The standard Pandoc installation includes markdown2pdf, a wrapper
around pandoc and pdflatex that produces PDFs directly from markdown
sources. The default behavior of markdown2pdf is to create a file with
the same base name as the first argument and the extension pdf; thus,
for example,

markdown2pdf sample.txt endnotes.txt

will produce sample.pdf.  (If sample.pdf exists already,
it will be backed up before being overwritten.)  An output file
name can be specified explicitly using the -o option:

markdown2pdf -o book.pdf chap1 chap2

If no input file is specified, input will be taken from stdin.
All of pandoc's options will work with markdown2pdf as well.

markdown2pdf assumes that pdflatex is in the path.  It also
assumes that the following LaTeX packages are available:
unicode, fancyhdr (if you have verbatim text in footnotes),
graphicx (if you use images), array (if you use tables),
and ulem (if you use strikeout text).  If they are not already
included in your LaTeX distribution, you can get them from
[CTAN]. A full [TeX Live] or [MacTeX] distribution will have all of
these packages.

hsmarkdown
------------

A user who wants a drop-in replacement for Markdown.pl may create
a symbolic link to the pandoc executable called hsmarkdown. When
invoked under the name hsmarkdown, pandoc will behave as if the
--strict flag had been selected, and no command-line options will be
recognized. However, this approach does not work under Cygwin, due to
problems with its simulation of symbolic links.

[Cygwin]:  http://www.cygwin.com/
[iconv]: http://www.gnu.org/software/libiconv/
[CTAN]: http://www.ctan.org "Comprehensive TeX Archive Network"
[TeX Live]: http://www.tug.org/texlive/
[MacTeX]:   http://www.tug.org/mactex/

Command-line options
====================

Various command-line options can be used to customize the output.
For further documentation, see the pandoc(1) man page.

-f, --from, -r, or --read *format*
:   specifies the input format (the format Pandoc will be converting
*from*). *format* can be native, markdown, rst, html, or
latex.  (+lhs can be appended to indicate that the input should
be treated as literate Haskell source.  See

-t, --to, -w, or --write *format*
:   specifies the output format -- the format Pandoc will
be converting *to*. *format* can be native, html, slidy, s5,
docbook, opendocument, latex, context, markdown, man,
plain, rst, and rtf. (+lhs can be appended to indicate that
the output should be treated as literate Haskell source. See

-s or --standalone
:   indicates that a standalone document is to be produced (with
appropriate headers and footers), rather than a fragment.

-o or --output *filename*
:   sends output to *filename*. If this option is not specified,
or if its argument is -, output will be sent to stdout.
(Exception: if the output format is odt or epub, output to
stdout is disabled.)

-p or --preserve-tabs
:   causes tabs in the source text to be preserved, rather than converted
to spaces (the default).

--tab-stop *tabstop*
:   sets the number of spaces per tab to *tabstop* (defaults to 4).

--strict
:   specifies that strict markdown syntax is to be used, without
pandoc's usual extensions and variants (described below).  When the
input format is HTML, this means that constructs that have no
equivalents in standard markdown (e.g. definition lists or strikeout
text) will be parsed as raw HTML.

--reference-links
:   causes reference-style links to be used in markdown
and reStructuredText output.  By default inline links are used.

-R or --parse-raw
:   causes the HTML and LaTeX readers to parse HTML codes and LaTeX
environments that it can't translate as raw HTML or LaTeX. Raw HTML can
be printed in markdown, reStructuredText, HTML, Slidy, and S5
output; raw LaTeX can be printed in markdown, reStructuredText,
LaTeX, and ConTeXt output. The default is for the readers to omit
untranslatable HTML codes and LaTeX environments. (The LaTeX reader
does pass through untranslatable LaTeX *commands*, even if -R is
not specified.)

-C or --custom-header *filename*
:   can be used to specify a custom document header. Implies --standalone.
*Note: this option is deprecated. Use of --template is preferred.*

--toc or --table-of-contents
case of latex, context, and rst, an instruction to create
one) in the output document. This option has no effect with man,
docbook, slidy, or s5 output formats.

--base-header-level *level*
:   specifies the base level for headers (defaults to 1).

--template=*file*
:   uses *file* as a custom template for the generated document. Implies
-s. See [Templates](#templates) below for a description
of template syntax. If this option is not used, a default
-D/--print-default-template.

-V *key=val*, --variable=*key:val*
:   sets the template variable *key* to the value *val* when rendering the
document in standalone mode. This is only useful when the
--template option is used to specify a custom template, since
pandoc automatically sets the variables used in the default
templates.

-c or --css *filename*
:   allows the user to specify a custom stylesheet that will be linked to
in HTML, Slidy, and S5 output. This option can be used repeatedly
to include multiple stylesheets. They will be included in the order
specified. Implies --standalone.

-H or --include-in-header *filename*
:   includes the contents of *filename* (verbatim) at the end of the
document header. This can be used, for example, to include special
CSS or javascript in HTML documents.  This option can be used
repeatedly to include multiple files in the header.  They will be
included in the order specified.  Implies --standalone.

-B or --include-before-body *filename*
:   includes the contents of *filename* (verbatim) at the beginning of
the document body (e.g. after the <body> tag in HTML, or the
\begin{document} command in LaTeX). This can be used to include
navigation bars or banners in HTML documents. This option can be
used repeatedly to include multiple files. They will be included in
the order specified.  Implies --standalone.

-A or --include-after-body *filename*
:   includes the contents of *filename* (verbatim) at the end of
the document body (before the </body> tag in HTML, or the
\end{document} command in LaTeX). This option can be be used
repeatedly to include multiple files. They will be included in the
order specified.  Implies --standalone.

--reference-odt *filename*
:   uses the specified file as a style reference in producing an ODT.
For best results, the reference ODT should be a modified version
of an ODT produced using pandoc.  The contents of the reference ODT
are ignored, but its stylesheets are used in the new ODT. If no
reference ODT is specified on the command line, pandoc will look
for a file reference.odt in the user data directory (see
--data-dir, below). If it is not found there, sensible defaults
will be used.

--epub-stylesheet *filename*
:   uses the specified CSS file to style the EPUB.  If no stylesheet
is specified, pandoc will look for a file epub.css in the
user data directory (see --data-dir, below).  If it is not
found there, sensible defaults will be used.

--epub-metadata *filename*
:   looks in the specified XML file for metadata for the EPUB.
The file should contain a series of [Dublin Core elements],
for example:

<dc:rights>Creative Commons</dc:rights>
<dc:language>es-AR</dc:language>

By default, pandoc will include the following metadata elements:
<dc:title> (from the document title), <dc:creator> (from the
document authors), <dc:language> (from the locale), and
<dc:identifier id="BookId"> (a randomly generated UUID). Any of
these may be overridden by elements in the metadata file.

-D or --print-default-template *format*
:   prints the default template for an output *format*. (See -t
for a list of possible *format*s.)

-T or --title-prefix *string*
:   includes *string* as a prefix at the beginning of the title that
appears in the HTML header (but not in the title as it appears at
the beginning of the HTML body). (See below on
[Title Blocks](#title-blocks).)  Implies --standalone.

-S or --smart
:   causes pandoc to produce typographically correct output, along the
lines of John Gruber's [Smartypants]. Straight quotes are converted
to curly quotes, --- to dashes, and ... to ellipses. Nonbreaking
spaces are inserted after certain abbreviations, such as "Mr."
(Note: This option is only significant when the input format is
markdown. It is selected automatically when the output format is
latex or context.)

-m*[url]* or --latexmathml*[=url]*
:   causes pandoc to use the [LaTeXMathML] script to display
TeX math in HTML, Slidy, or S5. If a local copy of LaTeXMathML.js
is available on the webserver where the page will be viewed, provide
a *url* and a link will be inserted in the generated HTML. If
no *url* is provided, the contents of the script will be inserted
directly; this provides portability at the price of efficiency. If
you plan to use math on several pages, it is much better to link to
a copy of LaTeXMathML.js, which can be cached. (See --jsmath,
--gladtex, --webtex, and --mimetex for alternative ways of
dealing with math in HTML.)

--mathml
:   causes pandoc to convert all TeX math to MathML.
In standalone mode, a small javascript will be inserted that allows
the MathML to be viewed on some browsers.

--jsmath*=[url]*
:   causes pandoc to use the [jsMath] script to display
TeX math in HTML, Slidy, or S5. The *url* should point to the jsMath
load script (e.g. jsMath/easy/load.js). If it is provided, a link
to it will be included in the header of standalone HTML documents.
(See --latexmathml, --mimetex, --webtex, and --gladtex for
alternative ways of dealing with math in HTML.)

--gladtex*[=url]*
:   causes TeX formulas to be enclosed in <eq> tags in HTML, Slidy, or
S5 output. This output can then be processed by [gladTeX] to produce
links to images with the typeset formulas. (See --latexmathml,
--jsmath, --webtex, and --mimetex for alternative ways of
dealing with math in HTML.)

--mimetex*[=url]*
:   causes TeX formulas to be replaced by <img> tags linking to the
[mimeTeX] CGI script, which will produce images with the typeset
formulas. (See --latexmathml, --jsmath, --webtex, and
--gladtex for alternative ways of dealing with math in HTML.)

--webtex*[=url]*
:   causes TeX formulas to be replaced by <img> tags linking to an
external service that converts TeX formulas to images. The formula
will be concatenated with the URL provided. If no URL
is specified, the Google Chart API is used. (See --latexmathml,
--jsmath, --mimetex, and --gladtex for alternative ways of
dealing with math in HTML.)

-i or --incremental
:   causes all lists in Slidy or S5 output to be displayed incrementally by
default (one item at a time). The normal default is for lists to be
displayed all at once.

--xetex
:   creates LaTeX outut suitable for processing by XeTeX.

-N or --number-sections
:   causes sections to be numbered in LaTeX, ConTeXt, or HTML output.
By default, sections are not numbered.

--section-divs
:   causes sections to be wrapped in <div> tags. In this case,
are attached to the enclosing <div> rather than the header itself.

--no-wrap
:   disables text-wrapping in output.  By default, text is wrapped
appropriately for the output format.

--sanitize-html
:   sanitizes HTML (in markdown or HTML input) using a whitelist.
Unsafe tags are replaced by HTML comments; unsafe attributes
are omitted. URIs in links and images are also checked against a
whitelist of URI schemes.

--email-obfuscation*=none|javascript|references*
:   specifies a method for obfuscating mailto: links in HTML documents.
*none* leaves mailto: links as they are.  *javascript* obfuscates
them using javascript. *references* obfuscates them by printing their
letters as decimal or hexadecimal character references.  If --strict
is specified, *references* is used regardless of the presence
of this option.

--id-prefix*=string*
:   specifies a prefix to be added to all automatically generated identifiers
in HTML output.  This is useful for preventing duplicate identifiers
when generating fragments to be included in other pages.

--indented-code-classes*=classes*
:   specifies classes to use for indented code blocks--for example,
perl,numberLines or haskell. Multiple classes may be separated
by spaces or commas.

--data-dir*=directory*
:   specifies the user data directory to search for pandoc data files.
If this option is not specified, the default user data directory
will be used:

$HOME/.pandoc in unix and C:\Documents And Settings\USERNAME\Application Data\pandoc in Windows. A reference ODT, templates directory, s5 directory placed in this directory will override pandoc's normal defaults. --dump-args : is intended to make it easier to create wrapper scripts that use Pandoc. It causes Pandoc to dump information about the arguments with which it was called to stdout, then exit. The first line printed is the name of the output file specified using the -o or --output option, or - if output would go to stdout. The remaining lines, if any, list command-line arguments. These will include the names of input files and any special options passed after  --  on the command line. So, for example, pandoc --dump-args -o foo.html -s foo.txt \ appendix.txt -- -e latin1 will cause the following to be printed to stdout: foo.html foo.txt appendix.txt -e latin1 --ignore-args : causes Pandoc to ignore all command-line arguments. Regular Pandoc options are not ignored. Thus, for example, pandoc --ignore-args -o foo.html -s foo.txt -- -e latin1 is equivalent to pandoc -o foo.html -s -v or --version : prints the version number to STDERR. -h or --help : prints a usage message to STDERR. [Smartypants]: http://daringfireball.net/projects/smartypants/ [LaTeXMathML]: http://math.etsu.edu/LaTeXMathML/ [jsMath]: http://www.math.union.edu/~dpvc/jsmath/ [gladTeX]: http://www.math.uio.no/~martingu/gladtex/index.html [mimeTeX]: http://www.forkosh.com/mimetex.html [Dublin Core elements]: http://dublincore.org/documents/dces/ Templates ========= When the -s/--standalone option is used, pandoc uses a template to add header and footer material that is needed for a self-standing document. To see the default template that is used, just type pandoc -D FORMAT where FORMAT is the name of the output format. A custom template can be specified using the --template option. You can also override the system default templates for a given output format FORMAT by putting a file templates/FORMAT.template in the user data directory (see --data-dir, above). Templates may contain *variables*. Variable names are sequences of alphanumerics, -, and _, starting with a letter. A variable name surrounded by $ signs will be replaced by its value.  For example,
the string $title$ in

<title>$title$</title>

will be replaced by the document title.

To write a literal  in a template, use $$. Some variables are set automatically by pandoc. These vary somewhat depending on the output format, but include: legacy-header : contents specified by -C/--custom-header header-includes : contents specified by -H/--include-in-header (may have multiple values) toc : non-null value if --toc/--table-of-contents was specified include-before : contents specified by -B/--include-before-body (may have multiple values) include-after : contents specified by -A/--include-after-body (may have multiple values) body : body of document title : title of document, as specified in title block author : author of document, as specified in title block (may have multiple values) date : date of document, as specified in title block Variables may be set at the command line using the -V/--variable option. This allows users to include custom variables in their templates. Templates may contain conditionals. The syntax is as follows: if(variable) X else Y endif This will include X in the template if variable has a non-null value; otherwise it will include Y. X and Y are placeholders for any valid template text, and may include interpolated variables or other conditionals. The else section may be omitted. When variables can have multiple values (for example, author in a multi-author document), you can use the for keyword: for(author) <meta name="author" content="author" /> endfor You can optionally specify a separator to be used between consecutive items: for(author)$$authorsep, endfor Pandoc's markdown vs. standard markdown ======================================= In parsing markdown, Pandoc departs from and extends [standard markdown] in a few respects. Except where noted, these differences can be suppressed by specifying the --strict command-line option. [standard markdown]: http://daringfireball.net/projects/markdown/syntax "Markdown syntax description" Backslash escapes ----------------- Except inside a code block or inline code, any punctuation or space character preceded by a backslash will be treated literally, even if it would normally indicate formatting. Thus, for example, if one writes *\*hello\** one will get <em>*hello*</em> instead of <strong>hello</strong> This rule is easier to remember than standard markdown's rule, which allows only the following characters to be backslash-escaped: \*_{}[]()>#+-.! A backslash-escaped space is parsed as a nonbreaking space. It will appear in TeX output as ~ and in HTML and XML as \&#160; or \&nbsp;. A backslash-escaped newline (i.e. a backslash occurring at the end of a line) is parsed as a hard line break. It will appear in TeX output as \\ and in HTML as <br />. This is a nice alternative to markdown's "invisible" way of indicating hard line breaks using two trailing spaces on a line. Subscripts and superscripts --------------------------- Superscripts may be written by surrounding the superscripted text by ^ characters; subscripts may be written by surrounding the subscripted text by ~ characters. Thus, for example, H~2~O is a liquid. 2^10^ is 1024. If the superscripted or subscripted text contains spaces, these spaces must be escaped with backslashes. (This is to prevent accidental superscripting and subscripting through the ordinary use of ~ and ^.) Thus, if you want the letter P with 'a cat' in subscripts, use P~a\ cat~, not P~a cat~. Strikeout --------- To strikeout a section of text with a horizontal line, begin and end it with ~~. Thus, for example, This ~~is deleted text.~~ Nested Lists ------------ Pandoc behaves differently from standard markdown on some "edge cases" involving lists. Consider this source: 1. First 2. Second: - Fee - Fie - Foe 3. Third Pandoc transforms this into a "compact list" (with no <p> tags around "First", "Second", or "Third"), while markdown puts <p> tags around "Second" and "Third" (but not "First"), because of the blank space around "Third". Pandoc follows a simple rule: if the text is followed by a blank line, it is treated as a paragraph. Since "Second" is followed by a list, and not a blank line, it isn't treated as a paragraph. The fact that the list is followed by a blank line is irrelevant. (Note: Pandoc works this way even when the --strict option is specified. This behavior is consistent with the official markdown syntax description, even though it is different from that of Markdown.pl.) Ordered Lists ------------- Unlike standard markdown, Pandoc allows ordered list items to be marked with uppercase and lowercase letters and roman numerals, in addition to arabic numerals. (This behavior can be turned off using the --strict option.) List markers may be enclosed in parentheses or followed by a single right-parentheses or period. They must be separated from the text that follows by at least one space, and, if the list marker is a capital letter with a period, by at least two spaces.[^2] [^2]: The point of this rule is to ensure that normal paragraphs starting with people's initials, like B. Russell was an English philosopher. do not get treated as list items. This rule will not prevent (C) 2007 Joe Smith from being interpreted as a list item. In this case, a backslash escape can be used: (C\) 2007 Joe Smith Pandoc also pays attention to the type of list marker used, and to the starting number, and both of these are preserved where possible in the output format. Thus, the following yields a list with numbers followed by a single parenthesis, starting with 9, and a sublist with lowercase roman numerals: 9) Ninth 10) Tenth 11) Eleventh i. subone ii. subtwo iii. subthree Note that Pandoc pays attention only to the *starting* marker in a list. So, the following yields a list numbered sequentially starting from 2: (2) Two (5) Three 1. Four * Five If default list markers are desired, use #.: #. one #. two #. three Numbered examples ----------------- The special list marker @ can be used for sequentially numbered examples. The first list item with a @ marker will be numbered '1', the next '2', and so on, throughout the document. The numbered examples need not occur in a single list; each new list using @ will take up where the last stopped. So, for example: (@) My first example will be numbered (1). (@) My second example will be numbered (2). Explanation of examples. (@) My third example will be numbered (3). Numbered examples can be labeled and referred to elsewhere in the document: (@good) This is a good example. As (@good) illustrates, ... The label can be any string of alphanumeric characters, underscores, or hyphens. Definition lists ---------------- Pandoc supports definition lists, using a syntax inspired by [PHP Markdown Extra] and [reStructuredText]:[^3] Term 1 : Definition 1 Term 2 with *inline markup* : Definition 2 { some code, part of Definition 2 } Third paragraph of definition 2. Each term must fit on one line, which may optionally be followed by a blank line, and must be followed by one or more definitions. A definition begins with a colon or tilde, which may be indented one or two spaces. A term may have multiple definitions, and each definition may consist of one or more block elements (paragraph, code block, list, etc.), each indented four spaces or one tab stop. If you leave space after the definition (as in the example above), the blocks of the definitions will be considered paragraphs. In some output formats, this will mean greater spacing between term/definition pairs. For a compact definition list, do not leave space between the definition and the next term: Term 1 ~ Definition 1 Term 2 ~ Definition 2a ~ Definition 2b [^3]: I have also been influenced by the suggestions of [David Wheeler](http://www.justatheory.com/computers/markup/modest-markdown-proposal.html). [PHP Markdown Extra]: http://www.michelf.com/projects/php-markdown/extra/ Reference links --------------- Pandoc allows implicit reference links with just a single set of brackets. So, the following links are equivalent: 1. Here's my [link] 2. Here's my [link][] [link]: linky.com (Note: Pandoc works this way even if --strict is specified, because Markdown.pl 1.0.2b7 allows single-bracket links.) Footnotes --------- Pandoc's markdown allows footnotes, using the following syntax: Here is a footnote reference,[^1] and another.[^longnote] [^1]: Here is the footnote. [^longnote]: Here's one with multiple blocks. Subsequent paragraphs are indented to show that they belong to the previous footnote. { some.code } The whole paragraph can be indented, or just the first line. In this way, multi-paragraph footnotes work like multi-paragraph list items. This paragraph won't be part of the note, because it isn't indented. The identifiers in footnote references may not contain spaces, tabs, or newlines. These identifiers are used only to correlate the footnote reference with the note itself; in the output, footnotes will be numbered sequentially. The footnotes themselves need not be placed at the end of the document. They may appear anywhere except inside other block elements (lists, block quotes, tables, etc.). Inline footnotes are also allowed (though, unlike regular notes, they cannot contain multiple paragraphs). The syntax is as follows: Here is an inline note.^[Inlines notes are easier to write, since you don't have to pick an identifier and move down to type the note.] Inline and regular footnotes may be mixed freely. Tables ------ Three kinds of tables may be used. All three kinds presuppose the use of a fixed-width font, such as Courier. **Simple tables** look like this: Right Left Center Default ------- ------ ---------- ------- 12 12 12 12 123 123 123 123 1 1 1 1 Table: Demonstration of simple table syntax. The headers and table rows must each fit on one line. Column alignments are determined by the position of the header text relative to the dashed line below it:[^4] - If the dashed line is flush with the header text on the right side but extends beyond it on the left, the column is right-aligned. - If the dashed line is flush with the header text on the left side but extends beyond it on the right, the column is left-aligned. - If the dashed line extends beyond the header text on both sides, the column is centered. - If the dashed line is flush with the header text on both sides, the default alignment is used (in most cases, this will be left). [^4]: This scheme is due to Michel Fortin, who proposed it on the [Markdown discussion list](http://six.pairlist.net/pipermail/markdown-discuss/2005-March/001097.html). The table must end with a blank line, or a line of dashes followed by a blank line. A caption may optionally be provided (as illustrated in the example above). A caption is a paragraph beginning with the string Table: (or just :), which will be stripped off. It may appear either before or after the table. The column headers may be omitted, provided a dashed line is used to end the table. For example: ------- ------ ---------- ------- 12 12 12 12 123 123 123 123 1 1 1 1 ------- ------ ---------- ------- When headers are omitted, column alignments are determined on the basis of the first line of the table body. So, in the tables above, the columns would be right, left, center, and right aligned, respectively. **Multiline tables** allow headers and table rows to span multiple lines of text. Here is an example: ------------------------------------------------------------- Centered Default Right Left Header Aligned Aligned Aligned ----------- ------- --------------- ------------------------- First row 12.0 Example of a row that spans multiple lines. Second row 5.0 Here's another one. Note the blank line between rows. ------------------------------------------------------------- Table: Here's the caption. It, too, may span multiple lines. These work like simple tables, but with the following differences: - They must begin with a row of dashes, before the header text (unless the headers are omitted). - They must end with a row of dashes, then a blank line. - The rows must be separated by blank lines. In multiline tables, the table parser pays attention to the widths of the columns, and the writers try to reproduce these relative widths in the output. So, if you find that one of the columns is too narrow in the output, try widening it in the markdown source. Headers may be omitted in multiline tables as well as simple tables: ----------- ------- --------------- ------------------------- First row 12.0 Example of a row that spans multiple lines. Second row 5.0 Here's another one. Note the blank line between rows. ------------------------------------------------------------- : Here's a multiline table without headers. It is possible for a multiline table to have just one row, but the row should be followed by a blank line (and then the row of dashes that ends the table), or the table may be interpreted as a simple table. **Grid tables** look like this: : Sample grid table. +---------------+---------------+--------------------+ | Fruit | Price | Advantages | +===============+===============+====================+ | Bananas | 1.34 | - built-in wrapper | | | | - bright color | +---------------+---------------+--------------------+ | Oranges | 2.10 | - cures scurvy | | | | - tasty | +---------------+---------------+--------------------+ The row of =s separates the header from the table body, and can be omitted for a headerless table. The cells of grid tables may contain arbitrary block elements (multiple paragraphs, code blocks, lists, etc.). Alignments are not supported, nor are multi-column or multi-row cells. Grid tables can be created easily using [Emacs table mode]. [Emacs table mode]: http://table.sourceforge.net/ Delimited Code blocks --------------------- In addition to standard indented code blocks, Pandoc supports *delimited* code blocks. These begin with a row of three or more tildes (~) and end with a row of tildes that must be at least as long as the starting row. Everything between the tilde-lines is treated as code. No indentation is necessary: ~~~~~~~ {code here} ~~~~~~~ Like regular code blocks, delimited code blocks must be separated from surrounding text by blank lines. If the code itself contains a row of tildes, just use a longer row of tildes at the start and end: ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ code including tildes ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Optionally, you may specify the language of the code block using this syntax: ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ {.haskell .numberLines} qsort [] = [] qsort (x:xs) = qsort (filter (< x) xs) ++ [x] ++ qsort (filter (>= x) xs) ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Some output formats can use this information to do syntax highlighting. Currently, the only output format that uses this information is HTML. If pandoc has been compiled with syntax highlighting support, then the code block above will appear highlighted, with numbered lines. (To see which languages are supported, do pandoc --version.) If pandoc has not been compiled with syntax highlighting support, the code block above will appear as follows: <pre class="haskell"> <code> ... </code> </pre> Images with captions -------------------- An image occurring by itself in a paragraph will be rendered as a figure with a caption.[^5] (In LaTeX, a figure environment will be used; in HTML, the image will be placed in a div with class figure, together with a caption in a p with class caption.) The image's alt text will be used as the caption. ![This is the caption](/url/of/image.png) [^5]: This feature is not yet implemented for RTF, OpenDocument, or ODT. In those formats, you'll just get an image in a paragraph by itself, with no caption. If you just want a regular inline image, just make sure it is not the only thing in the paragraph. One way to do this is to insert a nonbreaking space after the image: ![This image won't be a figure](/url/of/image.png)\ Title blocks ------------ If the file begins with a title block % title % author(s) (separated by semicolons) % date it will be parsed as bibliographic information, not regular text. (It will be used, for example, in the title of standalone LaTeX or HTML output.) The block may contain just a title, a title and an author, or all three elements. If you want to include an author but no title, or a title and a date but no author, you need a blank line: % % Author % My title % % June 15, 2006 The title may occupy multiple lines, but continuation lines must begin with leading space, thus: % My title on multiple lines If a document has multiple authors, the authors may be put on separate lines with leading space, or separated by semicolons, or both. So, all of the following are equivalent: % Author One Author Two % Author One; Author Two % Author One; Author Two The date must fit on one line. All three metadata fields may contain standard inline formatting (italics, links, footnotes, etc.). Title blocks will always be parsed, but they will affect the output only when the --standalone (-s) option is chosen. In HTML output, titles will appear twice: once in the document head -- this is the title that will appear at the top of the window in a browser -- and once at the beginning of the document body. The title in the document head can have an optional prefix attached (--title-prefix or -T option). The title in the body appears as an H1 element with class "title", so it can be suppressed or reformatted with CSS. If a title prefix is specified with -T and no title block appears in the document, the title prefix will be used by itself as the HTML title. The man page writer extracts a title, man page section number, and other header and footer information from the title line. The title is assumed to be the first word on the title line, which may optionally end with a (single-digit) section number in parentheses. (There should be no space between the title and the parentheses.) Anything after this is assumed to be additional footer and header text. A single pipe character (|) should be used to separate the footer text from the header text. Thus, % PANDOC(1) will yield a man page with the title PANDOC and section 1. % PANDOC(1) Pandoc User Manuals will also have "Pandoc User Manuals" in the footer. % PANDOC(1) Pandoc User Manuals | Version 4.0 will also have "Version 4.0" in the header. Markdown in HTML blocks ----------------------- While standard markdown leaves HTML blocks exactly as they are, Pandoc treats text between HTML tags as markdown. Thus, for example, Pandoc will turn <table> <tr> <td>*one*</td> <td>[a link](http://google.com)</td> </tr> </table> into <table> <tr> <td><em>one</em></td> <td><a href="http://google.com">a link</a></td> </tr> </table> whereas Markdown.pl will preserve it as is. There is one exception to this rule: text between <script> and </script> tags is not interpreted as markdown. This departure from standard markdown should make it easier to mix markdown with HTML block elements. For example, one can surround a block of markdown text with <div> tags without preventing it from being interpreted as markdown. Header identifiers in HTML -------------------------- Each header element in pandoc's HTML output is given a unique identifier. This identifier is based on the text of the header. To derive the identifier from the header text, - Remove all formatting, links, etc. - Remove all punctuation, except underscores, hyphens, and periods. - Replace all spaces and newlines with hyphens. - Convert all alphabetic characters to lowercase. - Remove everything up to the first letter (identifiers may not begin with a number or punctuation mark). - If nothing is left after this, use the identifier section. Thus, for example, Header Identifier ------------------------------------- --------------------------- Header identifiers in HTML header-identifiers-in-html *Dogs*?--in *my* house? dogs--in-my-house [HTML], [S5], or [RTF]? html-s5-or-rtf 3. Applications applications 33 section These rules should, in most cases, allow one to determine the identifier from the header text. The exception is when several headers have the same text; in this case, the first will get an identifier as described above; the second will get the same identifier with -1 appended; the third with -2; and so on. These identifiers are used to provide link targets in the table of contents generated by the --toc|--table-of-contents option. They also make it easy to provide links from one section of a document to another. A link to this section, for example, might look like this: See the section on [header identifiers](#header-identifiers-in-html). Note, however, that this method of providing links to sections works only in HTML. If the --section-divs option is specified, then each section will be wrapped in a div, and the identifier will be attached to the enclosing <div> tag rather than the header itself. This allows entire sections to be manipulated using javascript or treated differently in CSS. Blank lines before headers and blockquotes ------------------------------------------ Standard markdown syntax does not require a blank line before a header or blockquote. Pandoc does require this (except, of course, at the beginning of the document). The reason for the requirement is that it is all too easy for a > or # to end up at the beginning of a line by accident (perhaps through line wrapping). Consider, for example: I like several of their flavors of ice cream: #22, for example, and #5. Math ---- Anything between two characters will be treated as TeX math. The opening must have a character immediately to its right, while the closing must have a character immediately to its left. Thus, 20,000 and 30,000 won't parse as math. If for some reason you need to enclose text in literal characters, backslash-escape them and they won't be treated as math delimiters. TeX math will be printed in all output formats. In Markdown, reStructuredText, LaTeX, and ConTeXt output, it will appear verbatim between characters. In reStructuredText output, it will be rendered using an interpreted text role :math:, as described [here](http://www.american.edu/econ/itex2mml/mathhack.rst). In Texinfo output, it will be rendered inside a @math command. In groff man output, it will be rendered verbatim without 's. In MediaWiki output, it will be rendered inside [itex] tags. In RTF, Docbook, and OpenDocument output, it will be rendered, as far as possible, using unicode characters, and will otherwise appear verbatim. Unknown commands and symbols, and commands that cannot be dealt with this way (like \frac), will be rendered verbatim. So the results may be a mix of raw TeX code and properly rendered unicode math. In HTML, Slidy, and S5 output, the way math is rendered will depend on the command-line options selected: 1. The default is to render TeX math as far as possible using unicode characters, as with RTF, Docbook, and OpenDocument output. Formulas are put inside a span with class="math", so that they may be styled differently from the surrounding text if needed. 2. If the --latexmathml option is used, TeX math will be displayed between or characters and put in <span> tags with class LaTeX. The [LaTeXMathML] script will be used to render it as formulas. (This trick does not work in all browsers, but it works in Firefox. In browsers that do not support LaTeXMathML, TeX math will appear verbatim between characters.)

3.  If the --jsmath option is used, TeX math will be put inside
<span> tags (for inline math) or <div> tags (for display math)
with class math.  The [jsMath] script will be used to render
it.

4.  If the --mimetex option is used, the [mimeTeX] CGI script will
be called to generate images for each TeX formula. This should
work in all browsers. The --mimetex option takes an optional URL
as argument. If no URL is specified, it will be assumed that the
mimeTeX CGI script is at /cgi-bin/mimetex.cgi.

5.  If the --gladtex option is used, TeX formulas will be enclosed
in <eq> tags in the HTML output.  The resulting htex file may then
be processed by [gladTeX], which will produce image files for each
formula and an html file with links to these images.  So, the
procedure is:

pandoc -s --gladtex myfile.txt -o myfile.htex
# produces myfile.html and images in myfile-images

6.  If the --webtex option is used, TeX formulas will be converted
to <img> tags that link to an external script that converts
formulas to images. The formula will be URL-encoded and concatenated
with the URL provided. If no URL is specified, the Google Chart
API will be used (http://chart.apis.google.com/chart?cht=tx&chl=).

Inline TeX
----------

Inline TeX commands will be preserved and passed unchanged to the
LaTeX and ConTeXt writers. Thus, for example, you can use LaTeX to
include BibTeX citations:

This result was proved in \cite{jones.1967}.

Note that in LaTeX environments, like

\begin{tabular}{|l|l|}\hline
Age & Frequency \\ \hline
18--25  & 15 \\
26--35  & 33 \\
36--45  & 22 \\ \hline
\end{tabular}

the material between the begin and end tags will be interpreted as raw
LaTeX, not as markdown.

Inline LaTeX is ignored in output formats other than Markdown, LaTeX,
and ConTeXt.

Producing HTML slide shows with Pandoc
======================================

You can use Pandoc to produce an HTML + javascript slide presentation
that can be viewed via a web browser.  There are two ways to do this,
using [S5] or [Slidy].

Using S5
--------

Here's the markdown source for a simple slide show, eating.txt:

% Eating Habits
% John Doe
% March 22, 2005

# In the morning

- Eat eggs
- Drink coffee

# In the evening

- Eat spaghetti
- Drink wine

To produce the slide show, simply type

pandoc -w s5 -s eating.txt > eating.html

A title page is constructed automatically from the document's title
block. Each section (with a level-one header) produces a single slide.
(Note that if the section is too big, the slide will not fit on the
page; S5 is not smart enough to produce multiple pages.)

The S5 file produced by pandoc with the -s/--standalone
option embeds the javascript and CSS required to show the slides. Thus
it does not depend on any additional files: you can send the HTML file
to others, and they will be able to view the slide show just by opening
it. However, if you intend to produce several S5 slide shows, and you
are displaying them on your own website, it is better to keep the S5
javascript and CSS files separate from the slide shows themselves, so
that they may be cached. The best approach in this case is to use pandoc
without the -s option to produce the body of the S5 document, which
can then be inserted into an HTML template that links to the javascript
and CSS files required by S5. (See the instructions on the S5 website.)
Alternatively, you may use -s together with the --template option to
specify a custom template.

You can change the style of the slides by putting customized CSS files
in $DATADIR/s5/default, where $DATADIR is the user data directory
(see --data-dir, above). The originals may be found in pandoc's system
data directory (generally \$CABALDIR/pandoc-VERSION/s5/default). Pandoc
will look there for any files it does not find in the user data
directory.

Using Slidy
-----------

If you use Slidy, things work a bit differently.  Instead of
automatically chopping the document into sections on the level-1
headers, you can choose how to segment the document into slides
yourself. Just insert a horizontal rule at each slide boundary.
For example:

% Eating Habits
% John Doe
% March 22, 2005

# In the morning

- Eat eggs
- Drink coffee

-----------------------------------------

# In the evening

- Eat spaghetti
- Drink wine

------------------------------------------

The end!

To produce the slide show, simply type

pandoc -w slidy -s eating.txt > eating.html

Incremental lists
-----------------

Note that by default, these writers produces lists that display
"all at once."  If you want your lists to display incrementally
(one item at a time), use the -i option.  If you want a
particular list to depart from the default (that is, to display
incrementally without the -i option and all at once with the
-i option), put it in a block quote:

> - Eat spaghetti
> - Drink wine

In this way incremental and nonincremental lists can be mixed in
a single document.

========================

If you append +lhs to an appropriate input or output format (markdown,
rst, or latex for input or output; html for output only), pandoc
will treat the document as literate Haskell source. This means that

- In markdown input, "bird track" sections will be parsed as Haskell
code rather than block quotations.  Text between \begin{code}
and \end{code} will also be treated as Haskell code.

- In markdown output, code blocks with class haskell will be
rendered using bird tracks, and block quotations will be
indented one space, so they will not be treated as Haskell code.
rather than atx-style (with '#' characters). (This is because ghc
treats '#' characters in column 1 as introducing line numbers.)

- In restructured text input, "bird track" sections will be parsed

- In restructured text output, code blocks with class haskell will
be rendered using bird tracks.

- In LaTeX input, text in code environments will be parsed as

- In LaTeX output, code blocks with class haskell will be rendered
inside code environments.

- In HTML output, code blocks with class haskell will be rendered
with class literatehaskell and bird tracks.

Examples:

pandoc -f markdown+lhs -t html

`